Elm, English

The English Elm, is a deciduous tree, that can grow to a height of 30m, and may live more than 100 years.

The bark is grey-brown, rough and fissured, often with suckers growing from the base of the trunk. The twigs are finely hairy.

 

Photo supplied by: Alan Payne

Common Name:
English Elm

Scentific Name:
Ulmus procera

Tree No:
40a

Location:
I24

Smaller than those of the wych elm at 4–9cm in length. They are round to oval, toothed with a rough, hairy surface. They have the characteristic asymmetrical base that other elms have, and taper to a sudden point at the top.

Credit: Alan Payne

 

 

English elms are hermaphrodites, meaning both male and female reproductive parts are contained within the same flower. Flowers are dark pink to red and hang in tassels, appearing between February and March.

Credit: This could be your image

 

Once they’ve been pollinated by wind, the flowers develop into tiny winged fruits, known as samaras. These are dispersed by wind.

Credit: This could be your image

Despite its common name, it may have been introduced to the UK by Bronze Age farmers, or could be native to southern England only. In the past, English elm dominated the British landscape, but has been ravaged by Dutch elm disease since the 1960s. Now it is only found occasionally in hedgerows or woodland.

Elm grows best in well-drained soil in hedgerows and woodland. It can usually tolerate a range of pH levels in soil.

Many birds and some small mammals eat elm seeds and the leaves provide food for the caterpillars of many moths. Caterpillars of the white-letter hairstreak butterfly feed on elms and the species has declined dramatically since Dutch elm disease arrived in the UK.

Its timber was immensely valuable in making coffin boards, ships, piles for wharves and piers.

Elm wood is strong and durable with a tight-twisted grain, and is resistant to water. It has been used in decorative turning, and to make boats and boat parts, furniture, wheel hubs, wooden water pipes, floorboards and coffins.

Until 1967 the English Elm dominated the landscape of East Anglia and the whole of Britain. In that year a load of infected logs from North America brought a more virulent strain of Dutch Elm Disease to Britain.

This disease originally came to Europe in 1910 from Asia. It was isolated and named in Holland in 1921 but had largely died out by 1940. The new strain, carried by the Elm-bark Beetle, spread rapidly across Britain and by 1990 it had killed 25 million trees in the UK.

In the early nineties, it became clear that a number of mature elm trees in Essex had survived Dutch Elm Disease, despite all around them having succumbed. Local Tree Officer Melvyne Crow took some cuttings from these trees and deposited a few of them with Paul King, of King & Co.

Over a period of around 10 years Paul King potted them on, as the original trees were still in full leaf and realised that resistance to DED was increasingly likely. The decision was taken to investigate the best method of propagating these cuttings to produce good numbers of trees. Despite some difficulties, over 2000 “plugs” were eventually produced via micro-propagation. Since then, these trees have been grown on until reaching 10-12ft (3-3.7m) feet in height and are now established in 45 litre containers.

By the time these elm trees were released for sale in 2014, well over £75,000 had been spent on the project. Although it is unlikely that the trees are immune to DED, they do seem highly resistant to the disease. This may be because the main vector of DED, the Elm Bark Beetle, does not like feeding on the shiny, pendulous of this type of smooth leafed elm. The co-operation of Melvyne Crow and Paul King may well have saved the English Elm.

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Braintree & Bocking Public Gardens,
43 Bocking End,
Braintree,
CM7 9AE.

Open 9:00 to 4:00pm – January, February.
Open 9:00 to 6:00pm – March.
Open 9:00 to 7:00pm – April.
Open 9:00 to 8:00pm – May, June, July, August.
Open 9:00 to 7:00pm – September.
Open 9:00 to 6:00pm – October.
Open 9:00 to 4:00pm – November December.

Note – The gates are locked at dusk.
Dusk is subject to seasonal variation, so closing times may not be exactly to the schedule, at the transitions.

No dogs allowed in the gardens.
No alcohol to be consumed in the gardens.
No riding of cycles or scooters in the gardens.

General Enquiries
Phone: 01376 773066
Email: info@braintreeandbockinggardens.co.uk

Tennis Enquiries
Phone: 01376 773070
Email: tennis@braintreeandbockinggardens.co.uk

© Braintree & Bocking Public Gardens Trust 2017-2021. All Rights Reserved.

Registered Charity Number 212989

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Braintree and Bocking Public Gardens

Braintree and Bocking Public Gardens

We provide, maintain and preserve these unique and beautiful gardens as a community green space.

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🎺🥁🎻🎼 Don’t forget our “Brass in the Park” Concert’s return to the gardens throughout the summer 🎼🎻🥁🎺The band will play on the following Sundays, 3pm - 5pm, with short intervals:Sunday, 23rd of June 2024Sunday, 28th of July 2024Sunday, 25th of August 2024The Gardens are open to the public, this is a free event, just come on in. Invite your family, enjoy the scenery and sit back to enjoy the marvellous sounds of Bocking Concert Brass - BCBWhy not visit the Coffee House in the Gardens (closes at 4pm) for a delicious lunch or bring a picnic, refreshments are also available.(Donations in a pot would be gratefully received to help the band support the Gardens 🤗) ... See MoreSee Less
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1 week ago

Thank you for being a top engager and making it on to our weekly engagement list! 🎉 We appreciate the support. 🙏🏼🥰Pamela Jones, Chloe Akbiyik, Tracey Pretty, John Wishart, Jana Kislikova Williams, Lesley Goddard, Craig Stark, Tracy McCormack, Tracey Mark, Robyn Poulter C J Yates Construction Ltd Festival in the Gardens Lets knot BAND THEFT AUDIO Beans on Toast The Beavers @top fans ... See MoreSee Less
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😎🏰🛝🥳The Little Legs Festival is BACK for 2024! Wednesday 12th, Thursday 13th and Friday 14th June. 😎🏰🛝🥳3 Days of Fun for Pre-School Children Aged 0-5 years.Ticket price includes access for one day, to all the Little Legs Festival activities which will include:• Inflatables• Sandpit• Mini Fairground• Petting Zoo• Mr Timmy Tickle• Billy Banana • Baby Sensory• Children’s Entertainment • Face Painting• Jo Jingles Musical Group• Character Meet & GreetAnd much more! We can’t wait to see you all. 9.30am - 3pm. £6.00 per day entry ticket. Under 1’s are free!Tickets available online:www.littlelegsfestival.com/ticketsDay of entry to be selected at time of ticket purchase. ... See MoreSee Less
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We’d like to share with you a Thank You from the Festival in the Gardens “Dream Team” Rachel, Elliot and Warren. 💪🏼🥳🪩🥰I’m sure you’ll all agree that they deserve the biggest thank you from us all, for organising yet another amazing event. ... See MoreSee Less
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